The Internet
Sunday, 06 September 2009
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The Internet
TCP/IP

TCP/IP

 

In October 1972 Bob Kahn organized the first public demonstration of the ARPANET at the International Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). But perhaps more importantly this was the year that the first email was sent. In March Ray Tomlinson at BBN wrote the basic email message send and read software, motivated by the need of the ARPANET developers for an easy coordination mechanism. In July, Roberts expanded its utility by writing the first email utility program to list, selectively read, file, forward, and respond to messages. A year later the first international connections to the ARPANET were added, to the UK and Norway.

The problem was that the ARPANET wasn’t yet the Internet we know and love. The interconnections didn’t really have the flexibility needed to allow networks to be connected together- i.e. to be an “inter”-net. It was more like a large Wide area network that machines, rather than their local networks could connect to.

The man who first realised the need for an “open architecture” was Bob Kahn of BBN. Each network would look after its own internal workings and black boxes called “gateways” would deal with passing packets between the networks. There would be no global control or error recovery provided by the gateways.

 At the start of 1973 Kahn asked Vinton Cerf, then a researcher at Stanford, to work with him on the detailed design of a protocol. Cerf had been involved in the design of the initial ARPANET’s original protocol. What they created and issued as a specification in 1974 we now call TCP/IP.

It took almost ten years before the ARPANET was ready to switch over to TCP/IP. On January 1st 1983 the whole of the ARPANET changed to TCP/IP and any hosts who didn’t make the change were left out in the cold. At the same time the military sites on the ARPANET took the opportunity to split off and merge with the new Defence network to become MILNET.

In the same year the Domain Name Server (DNS) was developed at the University of Wisconsin. This allowed users to refer to sites by name and became the largest distributed database ever. By the following year DNS was introduced to the network and it had over 1000 hosts – small by today’s standards.

arpanet

ARPANET in 1980


At first TCP/IP and its related standards and technologies were just a backwater. Local area networks used other protocols such as Novell’s IPX and Microsoft’s NetBEUI. The Internet just didn’t seem to have anything to offer the personal computer revolution that was going on. The early implementations of  TCP/IP were too big and complex to run on a personal computer until David Clark at MIT produced a reduced implementation, first for the Xerox Alto and then for the IBM PC.

While all this was going on other wide area networks were being established. The most important was probably CSNET, which was funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF). This was connected to the ARPANET by a gateway in 1980 and many regard this as the real moment that the “Internet” really came into being.

In the UK in 1984 JANET (Joint Academic NETwork) was set up to allow all UK academic establishments to connect their computers together. In the USA NSFNET was created to do the same thing and link the five new super computer centres that it was setting up. This provided a more powerful backbone than the original ARPANET and CSNET.

At this time the Internet was still an academic and military toy but what happened next is unique in the history of computing. A publicly funded facility was slowly but surely turned over to commerce. The NSFNET backbone had made the transition from an experimental packet switching system to something that used off-the-shelf equipment. In its eight and a half-year lifetime, the backbone had grown from six nodes with 56 kbps links to 21 nodes with multiple 45 Mbps links.

In the same time the Internet had grown to over 50,000 networks worldwide. The NSF put $200 million from 1986 to 1995 into building the Internet. From the 1980s on more and more commercial hardware was based on TCP/IP and it established itself it as the standard for wide and not so wide area networks. More importantly TCP/IP provided the technology needed to connect networks based on other communications protocols together – the world wide network being created really was an internet.

From 1988 on the NSF encouraged its academic networks to seek commercial customers in an effort to expand the network and lower costs. However, at the same time they also added an “Acceptable User Policy” which prohibited use of the communications backbone that it provided for uses not in support of research and education. This forced commercial users to restrict their Internet use to local traffic and they had to look for other long distance network carriers.

Slowly but surely the commercial extensions of the Internet started to make their own long distance links and the power of the NSF to restrict commercial use grew less and less. At first early commercial users were often worried about what they could legally do on the “academic” Internet but very soon the commercial Internet grew to the point where it swallowed the academic network and the NSF bowed out.

The original backbone was retired in 1995 and by then the Internet had made the transition to a fully commercial system. For once the government had given something a kick start and then left it to free enterprise to run.

At first the main users of the newly commercialised Internet were medium to large companies who found the email facilities it provided irresistible but then , in 1994, the Web was invented and the second great Internet application was born. There were lots of intermediates on the way to the Web that are now long forgotten – Gopher and WAIS for example.

map

The internet map

Today about the only one of the original alternative Internet protocols in wide use is FTP, and even this is being sidelined by Web-based file downloading. The Web made ordinary individuals want to connect to the Internet and it was allowed to spread into homes courtesy of the SLIP and PPP protocols that could connect personal computers to the Internet via a standard telephone line. Suddenly there were new companies – ISPs, Internet Service Providers – which were making money selling Internet time to home users.

The rest as they say is history.

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