Page 1 of 3This article is more or less everything that the working programmer should know about operators and their associated expressions and of course, the use of brackets.
The main trouble with operators is that we know the four arithmetic operators so well that we tend to take them for granted and so miss most of the important ideas.
If you think of the instructions found in any almost any computer language they fall into two groups - commands and the operator expressions.
A command is something like CLEARSCREEN, OPEN, ERASE, PRINT etc. which causes a single action to occur.
The best known example of an operator expression is the arithmetic expression, e.g.
At first sight this looks like a single command to perform arithmetic but it isn't. In fact it is a small program in its own right.
It is composed of smaller commands and it has a flow of control.
This idea, that an expression is a small program, is remarkably obvious if you write in assembler because most assemblers don't support arithmetic expressions and so the expression program has to be written out using standard commands.
For example, using a single register machine the assembler equivalent of A=3+B*C would be
LOADREG B load the register with B
MULTREG C multiply the register
contents by C
ADDREG 3 add 3 to the register
STOREREG A store the contents of
the register in A
This is much more clearly a little subroutine to work something out than A=3+B*C is but they are entirely equivalent.
Any compiler writer will tell you that the most difficult bit of any compiler is the translation of expressions into good code. Well at any rate it used to be but now that the theory is reasonably well understood it's more or less a text book exercise.
What makes operator expressions interesting is that they have a complex set of rules for determining the flow of control through the component parts of the expression.
For example, in the expression 3+B*C all programmers know that the * operation is done before the + operation but that doesn't correspond to the order that they are written in.
In a simple left to right reading of the expression the + should come first and you do get different results depending on the order that the instructions are obeyed. In a program the order of execution is usually from top to bottom and/or from left to right so expressions really are different.
The basic idea is that each operator has a precedence associated with it and the order that each operation is carried out depends on this precedence.
In the example above * has a higher precedence than + and so it is executed first. Notice that this precedence can also be seen in the assembly language version of the expression where the last part of the expression was evaluated first.
Of course you can always use brackets to explicitly control the grouping of the operators - a bracketed expression will be treated as the single value that it evaluates to.
One subtle point is that although most languages evaluate expressions according to precedence rules most do not guarantee the order of evaluation of sub-expressions. For example, in evaluating the expression (1+2)*(3+4) the compiler can choose to work out (1+2) or (3+4) first. Of course in this case it makes no difference to the result but there are exceptions - specifially when the sub-expressions have side effect i.e. change the state of the program..
So far this is about as much as most programmers know about expressions but there is a little more.
For example, an operator can operate on different numbers of data values. The common arithmetic operations are dyadic, that is they operate on two values as in 1+2 but there are also plenty of monadic operators that operate on a single value such as -2, NOT truth value, 2^4 and so on.
In general an operator can be n-adic without any difficulty apart from how to write them as part of expressions. For example, if I invent the triadic operator @ which finds the largest of three values the only reasonable way to write this is as
@ value1, value2, value3
and in this guise it looks more like a function than an operator. This is because there is a very close association between functions and operators.