Chaining - Fluent Interfaces In JavaScript
Written by Ian Elliot   
Friday, 23 February 2018
Article Index
Chaining - Fluent Interfaces In JavaScript
Singleton Chaining


One common use of function chaining is to create a fluent interface to initialize an object, You can initialize everything using the constructor but this often results in a constructor that is very difficult to use. Providing set functions that can be chained produces a neater and more flexible initialization API.

For example, suppose you have an address object which holds a person's details, then you could define the constructor as:

var AddressConstruct = function () {

            this.setName = function (name) {
       = name;
                return this;
            this.setNumber = function (number){
                this.number = number;
                return this;
            this.setAge = function (age) {
                this.age = age;
                return this;


Following this definition you can write things like:

var add = new AddressConstruct();

Once you have seen the basic method you can see that it i possible to extend the idea to including methods to modify values that have already been set. For example you could have an addAge method which increments the age field and so on.

A DSL For Calculation

As an example of how function chaining can become a DSL (Domain Specific Language), consider the task of implementing a calculator or math API. JavaScript already has the Math object, which provides many standard functions, but this is an example of how it could have been done.

The first problem we have to solve is that, unlike a non-fluent approach to calculation, our functions cannot return the result of the calculation. In fact, the result has to be stored as the state of the calc object. This is another common pattern in using function chaining - what used to be a result often has to be built into the object's state.

The constructor is:

var CalcConstruct = function () {
      this.value = 0;
      this.square = function () {
       this.value = Math.pow(this.value, 2);
       return this;
      this.sqrt = function () {
       this.value = Math.sqrt(this.value);
       return this;
      this.display = function () {
       return this;
      this.setValue = function (value) {
       this.value = value;
       return this;
      this.times = function (times) {
       this.value = this.value * times;
       return this;


Notice that all of the functions work with this.value and return this.

The range of operations is quite small - square, sqrt, times, setValue and display. Even so, you can now write calculations that look fairly impressive - for example:

var c = new CalcConstruct();


You can see that it does start to look like a program in a special language.

Where Next

This final example is a little more realistic, but it hardly starts to dig into the sophistication you can invent - and JavaScript is ideal for this sort of elaboration.

For example, if you make the internal state of the object a collection, you can introduce functions which select and even enumerate on the collection. You can arrange for functions to return different types of object to implement conditionals and so on. You can also pass functions within methods to determine what happens. For example:


could be implemented to apply the sin function to each member of the collection and then perform a reduction on the collection using the sum function i.e. form a total of the values in the collection.

If you want to see more examples of using the fluent style then see jQuery or LINQ both of which take function chaining as key design principles.






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JavaScript Jems
Patterns & Practice



  1. JavaScript Patterns 
    Why JavaScript is a Jem
  2. Objects with Values in JavaScript*
  3. Private Functions In JavaScript
  4. Chaining - Fluent Interfaces In JavaScript*
  5. Active Logic, Truthy and Falsey*
  6. The Confusing Comma In JavaScript*
  7. Self Modifying Code*
  8. Lambda expressions
  9. Meta Programming Using Proxy
  10. Master JavaScript Regular Expressions
  11. The Function Approach To Programming

*= recently revised.






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Last Updated ( Thursday, 13 June 2019 )